The roles of tropical forest in the context of ecosystem services are extraordinary, from simply providing medicinal plants for local uses to supplying valuable timber for global markets, harbouring rich biological diversity, and storing and sequestering a large amount of carbon. However, previous human activities have been responsible for the loss and deterioration of such services, jeopardising current and future generations to benefit from them. Restoration is one option to reverse this adverse trend. Despite the rapidly growing studies in conservation spatial planning, there is a limited knowledge about how and where it is best to restore degraded landscapes with focus on ecosystem services. This knowledge gap is more prevalent in tropical regions, where deterioration of ecosystem services is occurring at an alarming rate, thus improved understanding is urgently required.
My thesis aims to develop novel frameworks on how decision science could be utilised to guide the restoration of degraded landscapes to enhance the delivery of ecosystem services. Specifically, this thesis will focus on four ecosystem services: carbon sequestration, habitat of biodiversity, provision of forest products, and hydrological services. The trade-offs among these services will also be analysed. In general, Borneo will be the study region of the whole thesis with particular chapter will focus on a part of the region.